Respuesta local y sistémica a la contaminación ambiental aérea en los niveles molecular y funcional: la desnutrición crónica como factor de riesgo
Revista Bioquímica y Patología Clínica (ByPC)
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Palabras clave

contaminación aérea
desnutrición
material particulado
macrófagos alveolares
vasculatura
metabolismo oxidativo
citoquinas

Cómo citar

Kurtz, M. L., Lezón, C., Masci, I., Bonetto, J., Maglione, G. A., Boyer, P. M., & Álvarez, L. (2023). Respuesta local y sistémica a la contaminación ambiental aérea en los niveles molecular y funcional: la desnutrición crónica como factor de riesgo. Revista Bioquímica Y Patología Clínica, 88(1), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.62073/bypc.v88i1.267

Resumen

Introducción: La desnutrición y la contaminación del aire causan graves problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial, y los niños son una de las subpoblaciones más vulnerables. Sin embargo, los mecanismos  que vinculan estos dos estresores no han sido aún dilucidados. Investigamos el efecto de la exposición a cenizas residuales del petróleo (ROFA) en la respuesta inmune pulmonar y en la vasculatura, en un modelo de desnutrición crónica (DC). Métodos: Durante 4 semanas, ratas macho destetadas fueron alimentadas con una dieta restringida al 20 % (DC) o ad libitum (control-C). DC y C se instilaron intranasalmente con (1 mg/kg de peso corporal ) ROFA. 24 h después de la exposición. Se evaluaron en cultivo de macrófagos alveolares (MA): viabilidad celular, actividad fagocítica, respuesta oxidativa y citoquinas proinflamatorias. En la aorta torácica, se evaluaron CYP1A1, eNOS, TGFβ1, canal de calcio tipo L e IL-6, IL-10 y parámetros contráctiles. Resultados: La respuesta de MA-DC a ROFA mostró cambios en el metabolismo oxidativo y la producción de citoquinas que afectan sustancialmente la respuesta inmune. La exposición a ROFA aumentó los niveles de CYP1A1 y TGF-β1 y disminuyó los niveles de eNOS y de canales de calcio en la vasculatura. La capacidad contráctil y la relajación disminuyeron en ratas DC. Conclusión: En general, los animales DC no lograron estimular la respuesta inflamatoria y desintoxicante a ROFA. Asimismo, provocó un aumento en la resistencia vascular y una disminución en la distensibilidad de la aorta, lo que podría, consecuentemente, provocar episodios agudos de insuficiencia cardiovascular en escenarios de contaminación ambiental.

https://doi.org/10.62073/bypc.v88i1.267
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Citas

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